training

Fitness, Wellness

Basic Fitness Components


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MNCCFITNESS COMPONENTS

According to Wikipedia, “Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities. Physical fitness is generally achieved through proper nutrition,[1] moderate-vigorous physical exercise,[2] and sufficient rest.[3]”

Although the formal definition of fitness has remained constant, ones perception is variable.   Prior to the industrial revolution  a person was fit if they were able to carry out the day’s activities, and be able to do the same the following day.  With the development of machines, automation and less physical work necessary over the years – and thus more sitting, the definition is more specific.  Physical fitness now encompasses the elective performance and resistance of the body as well.

Body Composition  –BMI stands for “Body Mass Index,” a ratio between weight and height. It is useful as a general guideline. It is a mathematical formula that correlates with body fat.

Cardiovascular Component  – This is the body’s ability to take in oxygen and deliver it to the cells in order to create energy for activity. Any activity that uses large muscle groups, can be maintained continuously, and is rhythmic in nature.” It is a type of exercise that overloads the heart and lungs and causes them to work harder than at rest.

Muscular Ability –Muscular endurance is the ability to apply force from a muscle over a period of time, or the ability to repeat muscle contractions.  Muscular strength is the ability to generate force.

Balance – Balance is the ability to maintain a specific body position in either a stationary or dynamic(moving) activity.

Flexibility – This is the range of motion that each joint in the body is capable of performing.  Flexibility exercises help stretch muscles, protect against injuries and allow the maximum range of motion for joints.

Other components of fitness include:  Coordination, Agility,  Reaction Time,  Speed, Power, Mental Capability

A complete fitness program is individualized, to the persons current fitness level, daily physical activity, skills, age related needs, and  health factors as a base.   A holistic approach to fitness also includes the mental, social and emotional aspect of physical activity.

Wellness

Rest & Recovery


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There is often so much emphasis on the active part of training that sometimes the rest and the recovery is cast aside.  In order to achieve one’s potential during the active phase of training, one must be attentive to the physical and mental needs for the rest and recovery stage.  Physical and mental performance can be enhanced with planned recovery time and self-care.  We often schedule our workouts into out weekly plan, but neglect to plan for the recovery which is part of  your fitness program.   Sleep is the main recovery strategy and is essential for both the physiological adaptation as well as to the consolidation of skill development.  It is important to training recovery because we release human growth hormone during Stage 3 and 4 that repairs the muscle that has been purposely damaged during training.   Increased duration or quality of sleep can result in overall athletic performance for non-athletes and athletes.   Often nutritional changes and a regular routine can provide highly beneficial results to getting a better sleep.

An increasingly common recovery technique is foam rolling – Studies show that proper foam rolling techniques can lessen decrements in muscle performance caused by DOMS (delayed onset muscle soreness).  Acutely foam rolling can increase flexibility and reduce muscle soreness and does not hinder performance.  It can work by improving overall circulation.  (arterial function, vascular endothelial function), and improves parasympathetic activity.   For most individuals foam rolling can have a positive effect to reduce muscle soreness, increase flexibility and range of motion before, during or after a workout.  Facilitated stretching, assisted stretches, yoga and massage techniques are other ways to allow muscles to release tension and allow more overall mobility, flexibility, increased blood flow.  These techniques also encourage mental relaxation, which is a component of the recovery process.

The body adapts best when it is given the best opportunity to do so